Applications: Photons

NIR detection

  • Yamashita, T., et al., Low-filling-factor superconducting single photon detector with high system detection efficiency, Opt Express, 21, 27177 (2013).
  • China, F., et al., Development and Evaluation of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors for 900-1100 nm Photon Detection, IEEE Transact. Electr. , E103C, 212 (2020).

MIR detection

  • Korneeva, Y., et al., New Generation of Nanowire NbN Superconducting Single-Photon Detector for Mid-Infrared, Ieee Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 21, 323 (2011).
  • Gol'tsman, G., et al., Middle-infrared to visible-light ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors, IEEE Transact. Appl. Supercond, 17, 246 (2007).
  • Xu, G.-Z., et al., Superconducting microstrip single-photon detector with system detection efficiency over 90% at 1550  nm, Photonics Research, 9, (2021).


  • Reiger, E., et al., Spectroscopy with nanostructured superconducting single photon detectors, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electr., 13, 934 (2007).
  • Maingault, L., et al., Spectral dependency of superconducting single photon detectors, J. Appl. Phys., 107, (2010).
  • Marsili, F., et al., Efficient single photon detection from 500 nm to 5 µm wavelength, Nano Lett, 12, 4799 (2012).
  • Kahl, O., et al., Spectrally multiplexed single-photon detection with hybrid superconducting nanophotonic circuits, Optica, 4, (2017).
  • Cheng, R., et al., Broadband on-chip single-photon spectrometer, Nat. Commun., 10, 4104 (2019).


  • Ren, M., et al., Laser ranging at 1550 nm with 1-GHz sine-wave gated InGaAs/InP APD single-photon detector, Opt. Expr., 19, 13497 (2011).
  • McCarthy, A., et al., Kilometer-range, high resolution depth imaging via 1560 nm wavelength single-photon detection, Opt Express, 21, 8904 (2013).
  • VO, A.-V., et al., Airborne Laser Scanning Data Storage and Indexing: State of the Art Review, Int. J. Rem. Sens., (2016).
  • Xue, L., et al., Long-range laser ranging using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors, Chinese Optics Letters, 14, 5 (2016).

THz interferometry

  • Matsuo, H., Requirements on Photon Counting Detectors for Terahertz Interferometry, J. Low Temp. Phys., 167, 840 (2012).

Optical coherence tomography

  • Kolenderska, S.M., et al., Quantum-inspired detection for spectral domain optical coherence tomography, Opt. Lett., 45, 3443 (2020).

Imaging through diffuse media

  • Rachael Tobin, Imaging through obscurants using time-correlated single-photon counting in the short-wave infrared, 2019, Harriot Watt University.

Quantum communication & demonstrations

  • Pearlman, A., et al., Gigahertz counting rates of NbN single-photon detectors for quantum communications, IEEE Transact. Appl. Supercond., 15, 579 (2005).
  • Hadfield, R.H., et al., Single photon source characterization with a superconducting single photon detector, Opt Express, 13, 10846 (2005).
  • Korneev, A., et al., Single-photon detection system for quantum optics applications, Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 13, 944 (2007).
  • Takesue, H., et al., Quantum key distribution over a 40-dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors, Nature Photonics, 1, 343 (2007).
  • Wang, S., et al., 2 GHz clock quantum key distribution over 260 km of standard telecom fiber, Opt. Lett., 37, 1008 (2012).
  • Fujiwara, M., et al., Characteristics of superconducting single photon detector in DPS-QKD system under bright illumination blinding attack, Opt Express, 21, 6304 (2013).
  • Stevens, M.J., et al., Quantum dot single photon sources studied with superconducting single photon detectors, Ieee Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 12, 1255 (2006).
  • Shibata, H., et al., Quantum key distribution over a 72 dB channel loss using ultralow dark count superconducting single-photon detectors, Opt. Lett., 39, 5078 (2014).
  • Shalm, L.K., et al., Strong Loophole-Free Test of Local Realism, Phys. Rev. Lett., 115, 250402 (2015).
  • Procopio, L., Single-Photon Experiments and Characterization of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors, PhD thesis University of Vienna, (2016)
  • You, L., Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors for quantum information, Nanophotonics, 9, 2673 (2020).

X-Ray detection

  • Watanabe, C., et al., Development of Superconducting Nanostrip X-Ray Detector for High-Resolution Resonant Inelastic Soft X-Ray Scattering (RIXS), Ieee Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 29, 4 (2019).

Photon correlation

  • Esmaeil Zadeh, I., et al., Efficient Single-Photon Detection with 7.7 ps Time Resolution for Photon Correlation Measurements, ACS Photonics, 7, 1780 (2020).

Testing of integrated circuits

  • LeCoupanec, P., et al., An ultra-low dark-count and jitter, superconducting, single-photon detector for emission timing analysis of integrated circuits, Microelectr. Reliab., 43, 1621 (2003).
  • Stellari, F., and P.L. Song, Testing of ultra low voltage VLSI chips using the superconducting single-photon detector (SSPD), Microelectr. Reliab., 44, 1663 (2004).

Artificial Neurons

  • Emily Toomey, Karl K. Berggren, A Power Efficient Artificial Neuron Using Superconducting Nanowires arXiv:1907.00263 


  • Shiki, S., et al., Kinetic-energy-sensitive mass spectrometry for separation of different ions with the same m/z value, J Mass Spectrom, 43, 1686 (2008).